The numerous Miocene-Recent alkaline volcanic outcrops in the Antarctic Peninsula form a substantial volcanic province, the least well-known part of a major belt of alkaline volcanism that extends between South America and New Zealand. The outcrops consists mainly of aa and pahoehoe lavas and hyaloclastites which locally contain accidental nodules of spinel lherzolite and other mantle-derived lithologies. The province is predominantly basaltic with two major differentiation lineages: (1) a sodic series of olivine and alkali basalt, hawaiite, mugearite, trachy-phonolite and trachyte; and (2) a relatively potassic, highly undersaturated series of basanite, tephrite and phono-tephrite. All the lavas show varying effects of fractionation by crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene, joined by plagioclase in the hawaiites to trachytes. Fractional crystallization can probably explain most of the chemical variation observed within each outcrop, but variable partial melting is necessary to account for the differences in incompatible element enrichment between the two series, and between the individual outcrops. The degree of partial melting may not have exceeded 3%, as is the case for many other alkaline magmas. The volcanism is an intraplate phenomenon but there is no correlation in timing between the cessation of subduction and the inception of alkaline volcanism. The activity cannot be related to the passage of the coupled Pacific-Antarctic plate over a stationary mantle hot-spot. Although the precise causal relationship with tectonic setting is unknown, regional extension was a prerequisite for giving the magmas rapid access to the surface.
Deciphering mollusc shell production: The roles of genetic mechanisms through to ecology, aquaculture and biomimetics
Most molluscs possess shells, constructed from a vast array of microstructures and architectures. The fully formed shell is composed of calcite or aragonite. These CaCO3 crystals form complex biocomposites with proteins, which although typically less than 5% of total shell mass, play significant roles in determining shell microstructure. Despite much research effort, large knowledge gaps remain in how molluscs construct and maintain their shells, and how they produce such a great diversity of forms. Here we synthesize results on how shell shape, microstructure, composition and organic content vary among, and within, species in response to numerous biotic and abiotic factors. At the local level, temperature, food supply and predation cues significantly affect shell morphology, whilst salinity has a much stronger influence across latitudes. Moreover, we emphasize how advances in genomic technologies [e.g. restriction site‐associated DNA sequencing (RAD‐Seq) and epigenetics] allow detailed examinations of whether morphological changes result from phenotypic plasticity or genetic adaptation, or a combination of these. RAD‐Seq has already identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with temperature and aquaculture practices, whilst epigenetic processes have been shown significantly to modify shell construction to local conditions in, for example, Antarctica and New Zealand. We also synthesize results on the costs of shell construction and explore how these affect energetic trade‐offs in animal metabolism. The cellular costs are still debated, with CaCO3 precipitation estimates ranging from 1–2 J/mg to 17–55 J/mg depending on experimental and environmental conditions. However, organic components are more expensive (~29 J/mg) and recent data indicate transmembrane calcium ion transporters can involve considerable costs. This review emphasizes the role that molecular analyses have played in demonstrating multiple evolutionary origins of biomineralization genes. Although these are characterized by lineage‐specific proteins and unique combinations of co‐opted genes, a small set of protein domains have been identified as a conserved biomineralization tool box. We further highlight the use of sequence data sets in providing candidate genes for in situ localization and protein function studies. The former has elucidated gene expression modularity in mantle tissue, improving understanding of the diversity of shell morphology synthesis. RNA interference (RNAi) and clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats ‐ CRISPR‐associated protein 9 (CRISPR‐Cas9) experiments have provided proof of concept for use in the functional investigation of mollusc gene sequences, showing for example that Pif (aragonite‐binding) protein plays a significant role in structured nacre crystal growth and that the Lsdia1 gene sets shell chirality in Lymnaea stagnalis . Much research has focused on the impacts of ocean acidification on molluscs. Initial studies were predominantly pessimistic for future molluscan biodiversity. However, more sophisticated experiments incorporating selective breeding and multiple generations are identifying subtle effects and that variability within mollusc genomes has potential for adaption to future conditions. Furthermore, we highlight recent historical studies based on museum collections that demonstrate a greater resilience of molluscs to climate change compared with experimental data. The future of mollusc research lies not solely with ecological investigations into biodiversity, and this review synthesizes knowledge across disciplines to understand biomineralization. It spans research ranging from evolution and development, through predictions of biodiversity prospects and future‐proofing of aquaculture to identifying new biomimetic opportunities and societal benefits from recycling shell products.
Beaumont marks the third consecutive polyethylene plant project for ExxonMobil with a fourth currently under construction in Corpus Christi, Texas Image: MHIENG completes polyethylene production train for ExxonMobil. Photo: Courtesy of William Picard/FreeImages. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Engineering (MHIENG), together with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America (MHIA), both group companies of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), has completed construction of a large-scale polyethylene production train for Exxon Mobil Corporation in Beaumont, Texas. MHIENG received the order for the plant in 2016. It is located adjacent to ExxonMobil’s existing polyethylene plant, currently in operation, and will produce 650,000 tonnes of polyethylene per year.MHIENG handled the detailed engineering for the project, as well as the supply and procurement of equipment, and construction support.ExxonMobil and MHIENG have partnered on similar polyethylene plants, including in Singapore in 2011 and Mont Belvieu, Texas in 2017. Beaumont marks the third consecutive polyethylene plant project for ExxonMobil with a fourth currently under construction in Corpus Christi, Texas, jointly owned with SABIC. In addition to polyethylene plants, MHI Group has a solid track record of providing ExxonMobil with large-scale compressors and turbines for ethylene and liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants.Demand for chemical plants is strong in the U.S. with increased production of shale gas. MHIENG, in cooperation with MHIA, which is headquartered in Houston, Texas (where major chemical plant customers are concentrated), will continue to build relationships of trust with ExxonMobil and other clients, and actively pursue business in the U.S. chemical plant market. Source: Company Press Release
We’ll send you our regular newsletter and include you in our monthly giveaways. PLUS, you’ll receive our exclusive Rider Fitness digital edition with 15 exercises for more effective riding. Adding to their victory in Wednesday’s $5,000 SmartPak Welcome Speed, Shawn Casady (USA) aboard Neil Jones Equestrian’s Lyranta Van’t Gebroekt captured first place in the $25,000 FarmVet Grand Prix speed class. Casady and the Belgian Warmblood mare (Lord Chin x Gyranta) stopped the timers at 60.76 seconds.Coming in second place was Carlee McCutcheon (USA) aboard her own MTM Unexpected (Sir Shutterfly x Innovation) with a time of 64.046 seconds. In a close third was Ben Asselin (CAN) and Attache Stables’ The Freshman (Namelus R x B. Amelusina R22) for their effort of 64.934 seconds. Asselin was also 10th riding Luikan Q.“Lyranta – she has a lot of character,” shared Casady. “She’s really fun to ride, has a huge stride, a lot of scope, and is really careful. She is just super competitive in those [speed] classes.”Casady competed earlier in the day in the $5,000 FEI 1.40m 275.2.5., so he was familiar with some of the lines in the Grand Prix course. “I knew I could do a few leave outs. She really thrives off of doing that; when we leave a stride out. She always jumps amazing,” commented Casady. “This was kind of her course and I knew where I could take chances and where I needed to be conservative.”Misti Cassar and Viking De Laume Capture First FEI Win Of Desert Circuit 2021FEI competition kicked off Thursday afternoon for Desert Circuit II and it was Misti Cassar (USA) and Viking de Laume (Newton de Kreisker x Issue de Laume) who captured the win in the $5,000 FEI 1.40m 275.2.5., sponsored by Run Amok Horse Transportation. Cassar and the Selle Francais gelding, owned by Alberto Rivera Torres, crossed the timers 25.94 seconds to earn the top spot.Mavis Spencer (USA) and Georgy Maskrey-Segesman’s Belladonna 42 (Clearway x Vita 24), finished in second place with a time of 27.25 seconds. Landing in third place was Kaitlin Campbell (USA) and Famke (Boss x Zephyrus), owned by HD Horses LLC, for their time of 27.59 seconds. Top Canadians were Ali Ramsay riding Casino (7th) and Beth Underhill with Count Me In (9th).Cassar and Viking, as he is known in the barn, have been paired together for two years. “A lot of the time, I don’t think I am going fast enough. I will look up and be ten seconds under,” Cassar noted about the 18hh horse’s stride. “He feels a little like an Equitation ride, but in the 1.50m because you need to keep it all together with him. Otherwise the distances get short.”The pair will continue competing through Desert Circuit III and return for Desert Circuit VII and VIII. “I really love the changes here,” commented Cassar. “I think the horses are really, really happy here and the energy here feels great. We are just so happy to be here.”Final Results: $25,000 FarmVet Grand PrixFinal Results: $5,000 FEI 1.40m Tags: show jumping, DIHP, Desert Circuit II, Thermal, Shawn Casady, Lyranta Van’t Gebroekt, Subscribe to the Horse Sport newsletter and get an exclusive bonus digital edition! More from News:MARS Bromont CCI Announces Requirements For US-Based RidersThe first set of requirements to allow American athletes and support teams to enter Canada for the June 2-6 competition have been released.Canadian Eventer Jessica Phoenix Reaches the 100 CCI4*-S MarkPhoenix achieved the milestone while riding Pavarotti at the inaugural 2021 CCI4*-S at the Land Rover Kentucky Three-Day Event.Tribunal Satisfied That Kocher Made Prolonged Use of Electric SpursAs well as horse abuse, the US rider is found to have brought the sport into disrepute and committed criminal acts under Swiss law.Washington International Horse Show Returns to TryonTIEC will again provide the venue for the WIHS Oct. 26-31 with a full schedule of hunter, jumper and equitation classes. Horse Sport Enews SIGN UP Email*
The American Bakers Association (ABA) is calling on all US bakers to descend on Washington in protest against critically low wheat reserves.”Extraordinary times call for extraordinary measures,” said ABA president and CEO Robb MacKie.With “critically” low reserves and severe conditions in the wheat markets, ABA is demanding that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Congress take action.On March 12, ABA is arranging for the “band of bakers” to meet with newly confirmed agriculture secretary Ed Schafer and senior White House officials, the association revealed in a statement last Friday.”ABA has repeatedly urged the White House, USDA and Congress to provide meaningful relief to alleviate the growing wheat crisis,” added MacKie. “Unfortunately those calls have gone unheeded. Now is the time for all bakers, from all organisations, to join ABA in coming to Washington to deliver this important message personally.”The association is to ask Congress to reassess the recent “infatuation” with ethanol production, it said, as the recently passed Energy Act calls for even higher ethanol production targets in coming years.”We alerted USDA a year ago that wheat was going to be in short supply, and now three of the five wheat categories are extremely short,” said MacKie. “This is raising such serious domestic food security issues that ABA is requesting that USDA curtail wheat exports until bakers and other domestic users are guaranteed the supplies they need. Other countries are stockpiling their strategic grain reserves.”
A new law to clamp down on illegal computer file-sharing will not initially target coffee shops and bakeries offering WiFi to customers.Chains providing free WiFi feared they could be prosecuted under the Digital Economy Act if customers viewed, downloaded or shared copyright-infringing material while on their premises. However, Ofcom’s draft Code of Practice to implement the law will only cover the top seven ISPs (internet service providers), such as BT and Orange.Under the code expected to come into force in early 2011 the IP address of anyone caught committing online copyright infringe-ment three times will be added to a blacklist held by their ISP. Copy-right holders, including music firms and film studios, will then be able to access the list and implement legal action.Coffee shops may eventually be covered, as Ofcom added that once the code comes into force, it may need to be extended to other ISPs including WiFi and mobile providers.A Starbucks spokeswoman said it welcomed the opportunity for consultation, but added that the implications for public Wi-Fi providers remained unclear. She said: “There has been widespread recognition in Parliament that the effect of the Bill on places like coffee shops and libraries deserves careful consideration.”
View Comments Tatyana Lubov(Nadia Quinn) It’s possible! Tatyana Lubov will step into Cinderella’s glass slippers in the national tour of Rodgers + Hammerstein’s Cinderella, which is scheduled to launch in September. She will star opposite Hayden Stanes in the production, who is set to take on the the role of Prince Topher.The touring cast will also feature Leslie Jackson as Marie, The Fairy Godmother, Sarah Primmer as Madame, Ella’s wicked stepmother, Vincent Davis as Lord Pinkleton, Joanna Johnson as Charlotte, Ryan M. Hunt as Sebastian, Mimi Robinson as Gabrielle and Chris Woods as Jean-Michele.Rodgers + Hammerstein’s Cinderella features music by Richard Rodgers, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, a new book by Douglas Carter Beane and original book by Oscar Hammerstein II. Originally directed by Mark Brokaw and choreographed by Josh Rhodes, the tour is directed by Gina Rattan and choreographed by Lee Wilkins.With its fresh new take on the beloved tale of a young woman who is transformed from a chambermaid into a princess, Rodgers + Hammerstein’s Cinderella combines the story’s classic elements—glass slippers, pumpkin, and a beautiful ball along with some surprising twists. More than just a pretty face with the right shoe size, this Cinderella is a contemporary figure living in a fairytale setting. She is a spirited young woman with savvy and soul who doesn’t let her rags or her gowns trip her up in her quest for kindness, compassion and forgiveness. She longs to escape the drudgery of her work at home and instead work to make the world a better place. She not only fights for her own dreams, but forces the prince to open his eyes to the world around him and realize his dreams too.Rounding out the ensemble will be Kelly Barberito, Delphi Borich, Rhaamell Burke-Missouri, Taylor Daniels, Giovanni DiGabriele, Chloe Fox, AJ Hughes, Lilli Jacobs, Johnny Link, Brian Liebson, Ilda Mason, Lauren Monteleone, Nick Pelaccio, Emilie Renier, Arnie Rodriguez, Caity Skalski and Tiffany Toh.
The Vermont Chamber of Commerce Business Education Partnership and the Vermont Mentoring Partnership are joining efforts on Monday, November 15, 2004, to present the Seventh Annual Mentors Make a Difference Conference at the Sheraton Hotel and Conference Center in Burlington (8:30 a.m.- 4:00 p.m.). The Conference is open to adults and youth 13 years of age or older.The Conference attracts hundreds of youth and adult participants, offering 20 workshops serving Vermont youth and service providers from the mentoring community. Through a dynamic program designed for youth and adults alike, Vermonts mentoring community will attend workshops to share ideas and strategies, improve and promote mentor programs, and strengthen team-building skills while exploring life principles. The conference is a rare opportunity for youth and adults to work together in an unconventional setting at a time when adult guidance, in a variety of forums, has been shown to improve student grades, school attendance, career options, and family relationships. Mentoring has also proven to prevent drug and alcohol initiation.Dr. Susan Weinberger, an international consultant on mentoring and the founder and president of the Mentor Consulting Group in Norwalk, Connecticut, is the keynote speaker. Dr. Weinberger has been recognized for her expertise in establishing, maintaining and evaluating mentoring programs and school-to-work initiatives. Her work has been published widely and the program she designed has been replicated in more than 45 of the United States, Bermuda and Canada.Workshops are designed to help start, maintain, or enhance a mentor program, and cover concepts such as leadership styles, mentor-mentee matches, e-mentoring, background checks, marketing, and communication. Workshop presenters include Secretary of State Deborah Markowitz, Margo Pedroso from the National Mentoring Partnership, Lesley Becker of Media Insight Service, and many, many more.The Vermont Mentoring Partnership is a clearinghouse for training, referrals, certification, workshops, conferences, and technical assistance to the Vermont mentoring community. A downloadable brochure and secure online registration are available at www.vtmentoring.org(link is external). For more information call or email the Vermont Chamber of Commerce Business Education Partnership at 802-223-0603 or [email protected](link sends e-mail).
At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, life’s curves seem more stressful and beyond individual control. While we can’t do much about macro-economic forces, we can control self-care and rejuvenation and finding physical and emotional balance essential to coping with stress and improving health. No wonder, then, that more and more people are turning to the wellness movement and the spa industry is booming.According to a survey released in 2007 by the International Spa Association (ISPA) and Price Waterhouse Cooper, the spa industry is growing at 16% a year, with approximately 14,600 spas in the United States serving more than 111 million people. While many people don’t have time or the money to seek out day spas in their area or travel to a distant destination spa, they will now have the next best thing: a virtual spa experience on the worldwide web.MySpaShop.com is the Web’s first virtual spa with everything you need to lead the spa lifestyle — accessible to anyone, anytime, anywhere. MySpaShop.com brings together experts, spa treatments, and shopping for the newest spa products, and lets the spa community share personal stories. Also featured are collections from regional artisans.Top spa lifestyle advisors and beauty professionals educate site visitors in healing rituals, massages and facials, fitness and exercise, turning the bathroom into a spa, bathing as therapy, cleansing meditation, healthy living and beauty therapies. Users will find nutritional and weight loss advice and more than 2,000 of the newest spa products and skin care lines, including many now only available at destination spas. Visitors will also find a community of like-minded people where they can share their stories and get peer support. In addition, the site offers members m$$ Rewards for loyalty through purchases and referrals of friends. Site registration is free.MySpaShop.com is the creation of Kimberly Matheson-Shedrick, CEO of Natural Resources Spa Consulting, Inc., a leading spa consultant whose high-end clients include the CuisinArt Resort and Spa in Anguilla, the Fontainebleau Resorts in Miami Beach and Las Vegas, and the Four Seasons Hotels in Moscow, New York City and Vail. Partnering with husband Rick Shedrick, a principal at Hewlett-Packard, she has combined his business and eCommerce acumen with her spa passion to create this exciting new venture.###
By Agence France-Presse June 13, 2019 An estimated 3 million people have fled the crisis in Venezuela since 2015, most of whom should be considered refugees, the United Nations (UN) said on May 21. “We see an average of 3,000 to 5,000 people that are escaping Venezuela, each day,” Liz Throssel, spokesperson for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), told the press in Geneva. “We’re looking at about 3 million people who have left Venezuela since 2015,” she added. UNHCR said 3.7 million Venezuelans have been counted abroad; 700,000 of them emigrated before 2015. At the end of 2018, about 460,000 Venezuelans had made formal asylum requests, mostly in neighboring Latin American countries, according to UN statistics. However, 1.4 million people received residence permits, humanitarian or working visas to stay legally in these Latin American countries. “Given the worsening political, economic, human rights, and humanitarian situation in Venezuela […] UNHCR now considers that the majority of those fleeing the country are in need of international refugee protection,” Throssel said. “This is because of the threats to their lives, security or freedom resulting from circumstances that are seriously disturbing public order in Venezuela,” she added. UNHCR also submitted a document to help administrations and authorities managing international protection requests from Venezuelan refugees. “UNHCR also calls on states to ensure that Venezuelans, regardless of their legal status, are not deported or otherwise forcibly returned to Venezuela,” Throssel said. The massive migration of Venezuelans fleeing from the critical economic situation in their country is one of the largest displacements of people in the recent history of Latin America.